Why Some People Don’t Like Me

“The lion doesn’t turn around when the small dog barks.” – African Proverb.

Have you been often accused of being intimidating? People might judge you for what you are without knowing about you or your life. Your personality today is a result of the experiences you have gone through in the past. Because of that your attitude towards life has become strong and tough. Others may not like the way you are but that should not bother you. You should not be sorry for who you are.

Marked by tension, your life has seen many ups and downs in your career and relationships. This has transformed you into an independent and stronger person. Therefore you do not easily come off as soft to people anymore.

Sometimes you are misunderstood as rude and mean for the way you behave and react around others. What most people fail to see is your soft side behind this garb of the tough one. People who come across as intimidating are actually kind in nature and have a big heart.

Some common traits that are visible in intimidating personalities are the following:

1. Small talk is annoying – You do not appreciate small talks and neither do you indulge in them quite often. Deep and serious conversations which involve the participation of the intellect is something that interests you. Petty conversations concerning the weather or the glamour world do not catch your attention. You are in fact infuriated if someone interrupts you with their small talks.

2. Willful ignorance is not tolerated – You not only have a strong personality but are wise and learned at the same time. You are open-minded and do not entertain someone who is judgmental. Baseless judgment comes from being ignorant. One way to mitigate ignorance is to educate yourself. But if someone is too reluctant to do so for themselves, then you would either walk away or lose your patience with them.

3. You see more opportunities than others – Because you are open minded, you may see many more opportunities in situations than others. This attitude not only helps you survive but it also pushes you through tough situations. At the same time, you may encounter animosity and jealousy from others because you have the ability to achieve success through hardships.

4. Your focus is on solutions and not problems – Strong-willed people are focused and they know how to get their things done. They do not tolerate any excuses from others who try to hinder their work. They dislike people who are weak and complaining and fail to manage things on their own.

5. You are a person of your word – Honesty is something that you value the most. You are straightforward who speaks their mind and is not afraid to come off as someone who is rude. You are not two-faced and tell people exactly what you think. You always stick by your word and never lie to a friend. Because of your personality traits, you are choosy about your friends. You cannot be friends with anybody and everybody. You detest liars and dishonest people.

If it sounds like you or someone you know, then you must understand by now that people with strong personalities may come off as intimidating but that they are not cruel at heart. They do not try to dominate you in any way. They just cannot restrain their anger and frustration when they come across people who wear masks.

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The 2nd Civil War is Already Underway

The Left (Democrats, Liberals, Communists, Socialists…etc.) declared war on America many years ago. Americans for the most part, were a forgiving people who gave those on the Left the benefit of the doubt. We elected the likes of Carter, Clinton and then Obama.

Obama was the straw that broke America’s back. The Obama administration is proving (daily) just how corrupt and criminal a government can be to even the strongest of democratic republics. The outright lies and misrepresentations, with not only tacit approval, but the complicity of the Mainstream Media in these criminal enterprises should shock every American. Unfortunately, the political climate coupled with this media love affair with the left has damaged our country so badly that it may take a second civil war to realign our country with our Constitution.

Last year, I lost a friend of forty-two years because of this climate. She has betrayed her upbringing, common sense and, decency because she bought into the lies of the left. There were some family issues like LGBTQ that hit home and caused a riff in their home. My friend bought into this liberal bullshit that anything goes and is okay. But, I  digress.

It got the point where she was posting/sharing straight-up LIES and Misrepresentations from the leftist media as “truth.” I started countering with actual facts. I countered her senseless memes with actual facts that anyone can verify with the most basic research skills. Alas, didn’t help. In my attempts to counter her programming, I only alienated her.

I am firm in my belief that she and the millions of others in our country are, in fact, mentally ill. You only have to look at the throngs of, for lack of a better term, Crazed people who are too stupid and lazy to examine the facts for themselves. We’ve become such a “drive-through, I want it now” nation. You want proof? It’s all around us. For example;


Many Americans, such as my former friend fall into this category. Recently, I unfriended one of my FB “friends” who is just over the top with soaking up every bit of these untrue so-called “facts” from the mainstream media. You cannot break the programming of these lemmings. After a few days of this nut-job complaining to her community of like-minded lemmings about my evilness, my ex-best friend chimed in with this;

Carla D****-**** I unfriended him a long time ago as well. His posts are so hate-filled and angry. I didn’t need that on my FB feed on a daily basis.”

This coming from the woman who believes that Our duly elected President is the offspring of the Anti-Christ and Hitler. She spends a few hours of her day spewing nothing but hate and contempt for our President, his administration, and his supporters. All she does is regurgitate CNN, MSNBC, et. al. lies and propaganda. So, countering with verifiable FACTS that discount her daily programming are evidence of my…” posts are so hate-filled and angry.”

Don’t get me wrong. We can have a disagreement on specific policies/issues. I love to engage in debate and critical discourse. However, I truly believe we as a nation are, in fact, past the tipping point. American conservatives, who used to be ridiculed at school and occasionally at work, are now being physically threatened, tossed from restaurants, refused service…etc. The Left has turned identity politics into a weapon of mass destruction. They label those like me with labels such as Murderer (Pro-gun), NAZI, White Supremacist,…etc. These terms are meant to de-humanize us. Once you “de-humanize a people, then those now non-humans can be discriminated against, attacked and ultimately, Murdered. Just ask the Gypsies, the Jews, et. al. Every day, we are threatened with violence, our children are threatened. Leftist Hollywood makes statements like the First Lady’s son should be forcibly taken from her and locked in a cage with pedophiles.

Who are the violent ones?! Watch  CNN or MSNBC for just one day. Then, give me ONE, Just One example of this kind of rhetoric coming from the mainstream Right. Who are the ones shutting down Free Speech, rioting, breaking windows and, setting fires on college campuses?? Hint: It’s NOT the “Right.” Who is rioting in major cities again, setting fires and destroying property?? Not the “Right.” If the Left wants to see REAL Nazi’s they only have to look in the mirror. The only thing these mainstream media idiots are missing is the wearing of brown shirts.

At this point, I’m ready. I’m ready for a “civil war.” I truly believe we NEED a Civil War. The only way we are going to return to Our Constitutional roots and end the downward spiral towards socialism is for the American people to rise up. We need to let loose the Patriots of this Great Nation to restore what has been stolen from us. If President Trump and the Office of the President continues to be assaulted by the Left and their minions in the media resulting in the Impeachment of Our President, then it’s time to let the bullets fly. Time to cut the head off of the snake of liberalism by using force to remove Leftists “leaders,” with Extreme Prejudice.


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Be the Lakota!


America Is Over, But I Won’t See It Go Without An Epic Fight

Barring some unforeseen awakening, America is heading for an eventual socialist abyss. But I’m not letting it go down without a fight.
Jesse Kelly


Close your eyes and imagine holding someone’s scalp in your hands. I don’t mean cradling his skull as you thousand-yard-stare at his lifeless face. I mean a real scalp, Indian-style, of some enemy you just killed on the battlefield; somebody you hated and who hated you back.

You killed him, won the day, carved off the top of his skull, and now you’re standing over him victorious on the now-quiet field of battle, with a quiet breeze blowing through your hair. Your adrenaline is still pumping with that primal feeling of victory and the elation of having survived when others didn’t.

But maybe, for just a moment, would you consider it? No, not a real scalping, but a metaphorical one. We’ll come back to this in a minute.

Look, Guys, America Is Simply Going Down

First, we all have to accept certain realities about where we are as a nation. Rains will come and go. The stock market will rise and fall. The sky is blue. Water is wet. And the government in America will just never stop getting bigger. This is simply a fact of life.

We haven’t seen our government shrink since Calvin Coolidge, and there is little appetite among the American public for shrinking the government. We are now at the point in this country where we call them “cuts” if the government doesn’t increase spending quite as much as they had planned.

So, barring some unforeseen awakening, America is heading for an eventual socialist abyss. It is really only a matter of dates. Will we all die in the inevitable communist purges within ten years? Of course not. Will it happen within the next century or two? Almost certainly.

In a way, it is actually a good thing. God gives each of us a period in history to live through. Why not have one that is memorable? I am thrilled to live in these times. Any man can coast through 80 years of a society at its pinnacle. His life will start and end, and it will be as if he never existed. Wouldn’t you rather live through an era people write stories about? I want to have a smirk on my face as I walk through the pearly gates of heaven, shaking my head, and saying to myself, “What a life.”

We Can Go Quietly, Or Fight to the Death

Do you remember the American Indians? Most likely you at least give them a passing thought whenever you pull a stick of Land O’ Lakes butter out of the fridge or hear some liberal pretend to be outraged over the Washington Redskins. Either way, they were the randomly settled group of nomadic tribes who resided in America before a bunch of Europeans arrived, took all their lands, and conquered them.

The Indians were faced with something that faces all civilizations. It’s something we face now. They were facing the unstoppable force of inevitability. Many of them knew it. The settlers from Europe were about to take over every inch of this country. Some tribes, like the Choctaw, chose to play nice with the government in hopes that their peaceful gesture would be returned. They got a Trail of Tears for their kindness.

But some tribes, like the Lakota, chose a different path. They chose war. Leaders of the Lakota like Sitting Bull knew full well how this war would end. Nevertheless, he gathered thousands of young warriors in the Black Hills and made his enemy feel some pain before he surrendered. He scored a decisive win at the Battle of the Little Bighorn and collected some scalps. Yes, the U.S. government prevailed in the end, but General Custer and his 200 men weren’t there to see it.

That brings us to the continuous internal battle we see on the Right. We have this ever-present acrimony between the factions because some of us will not accept where we are and the enemies we face.

Some on the Right believe that tyranny in this society, as in all societies, is inevitable. The people who will micromanage every aspect of your life are not God-fearing conservatives. They are leftists, and they are vicious.

They are not political opponents in the sense that you have a debate with them. These modern-day leftists want you to lose your job. They want to destroy you. How do you think they’re going to treat you when they finally sit in the seat of power for good? So fight them tooth and nail. Make them long for the day when you’re no longer fighting them. Be the Lakota.

At the End, Which Will You Have Wanted to Be?

Some on the Right will flatly reject this. They think we simply have a few minor policy quibbles with the Left. They think we would be able to settle these minor differences if it weren’t for the brutish Neanderthals who think it’s some kind of fight.

This group really peaked in 2016 after Donald Trump won the GOP primary. They began scolding the dullards who were too stupid to just believe everything printed in The New York Times. They lecture us to this day. They live for compromise with the Left, always ignorant of the fact that just a little more big government is still big government. They are the Choctaws. “Just trust the U.S. government. I’m sure they’ll treat us well in the end if we’re nice.”

So, back to scalping thing. When you make that long trek to the reservation the leftists have set up for you—and make that trek you will—what memories do you want to take with you? When living in the liberal utopian nightmare of 57 genders and government control over everything in your life, you will want to have been a Lakota. You’ll want to know, to remember, even just cherish the knowledge that, one day, you rode out onto the plains and made them feel pain.

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Tips to Avoid Being Killed by Some Asshole with a Gun

Do you want to reduce your risk of death by gun violence? If so, consider these 10 common sense ways to do so. These are things one can implement fully and immediately with no permission or agreement from anyone else but are entirely in the control of any individual. Marching to persuade politicians is a very indirect way of reducing anyone’s risk from gun violence. And considering their track record on so many issues, politicians may end up putting us all at further risk when all is said and done.

  1. Don’t commit suicide. This is the most common gun-related death, being about 63% of all firearm deaths in the US.
  2. Adopt a policy of not escalating any road rage situations. If someone does something offensive on the highways have it pre-settled in your mind to react by de-escalating the situation (refrain from responding in kind) and back off to allow the heat of the moment to cool.
  3. Do not join a gang. Violence is the accepted norm among gang members, resulting in many becoming victims of gun violence.
  4. Do not buy or sell illegal drugs. Yes, I do know that it’s the drug laws more than the drugs themselves that lead to gun violence among drug buyers and sellers. But, people already on the wrong side of the law are more likely to commit gun violence than the law-abiding population.
  5. Do not get involved with abusive people. Someone who previously has physically abused a partner is more likely to do so than are those who have never engaged in such abuse.
  6. Implement a personal curfew. The safest place anyone can be at 2am is at home in bed. Roaming the streets in the middle of the night exposes one to gangs, drug sellers, and other dangerous people.
  7. Stay away from Gun Free Zones. One study showed that 98% of all mass shootings happen in these places. Gun Free Zone signs tell violent people this is a spot where the picking will be easy. As for everywhere else, these predators may be deterred since they have to wonder if there’s already a good guy with a gun on the property.
  8. Do not associate with convicted criminals. Like the abuser, violent criminals out of prison are likely to continue their habits.
  9. Be aware of your surroundings. Make it a habit to look around and assess any situation you are in. Most victims of gun violence have no warning of the impending danger, the old saying “to be forewarned is to be forearmed” is pertinent here. So, no staring at your cell phone!
  10. Avoid people who handle guns in an irresponsible manner. Anyone who casually or even unknowingly points a gun at someone or who do not exercise good gun safety such as carefully checking to see that a gun is unloaded is someone to be avoided.
  11. Bonus Suggestion: Do not be a predator. A significant number (about 700 each year) of gun deaths are justifiable homicide wherein a victim successfully defends themselves from criminal assault.

Thankfully, the odds of anyone in the U.S. dying from gun violence each year is exceedingly low. Implementing the suggestions here will reduce those odds even further.

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F*ck Your Feelings!


I have really had it with the unknowledgeable, ignorant and political opportunists attempts to subvert the Law-of-the-land, i.e., Our Constitution. As one can see by the title of my essay, I don’t give a rats-ass about your “feelings.” What I do care about are my Rights and your Rights. I haven’t heard one single argument from the anti-gunners for solving the problem of mass-shootings in these “Gun-Free Zones” (Thanks Joe Biden you IDIOT).

The “solutions” offered by these liberal/Leftist, and yes, some “conservatives,” seem to center around the Repeal of the Second Amendment. This alone demonstrates the complete ignorance of these uneducated American idiots. Allow me to educate you about the Bill of Rights (NOT the Bill of “needs”).

The “Bill of Rights”, as enshrined in our Constitution, is what is considered to be a “negative” list of Rights. That is, this list of Rights, places Restrictions upon the GOVERNMENT not The People. It, the Bill of Rights “codifies” Our God-given or “Natural Rights.” In other words, while the Constitution can be changed (through a complex and long process), even IF the Second Amendment were repealed, it DOES NOT make that Right go away. We the People would STILL have the Right to self-defense with guns. To argue the opposite would be akin to divesting ourselves of Christianity/Bible then stating that it is now okay to commit murder or steal your neighbor’s property.

I’m tired of these spoiled, entitled little brats with ZERO life experience, much less ANY formal education or adult job experience dictate to me or anyone else, the laws of the land. They’re CHILDREN. I’m sick of the, “If you don’t agree with us, you “HATE” children.” No. I don’t agree with you because, (a) you don’t know what you’re talking about and, (b) Yes, You ARE children and the adults run things, NOT you.

Take, for example, the Idiot known as David Hogg. His recent antics of “die-ins” do nothing more than harm businesses engaged in LEGAL commerce by interfering with said commerce. His minion followers BREAK the LAW. Now, he has a ridiculous “5 point plan” for “ending gun violance.” Hey, Davey, first of all, it’s “violence” not “violance.” Please allow me to answer to each of his five points with reality and the Rule of Law.

Point 1. “CDC funding for research into gun “violance.”

First of all, the CDC’s (Center for Disease Control) mission is:

“CDC works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same.

CDC increases the health security of our nation. As the nation’s health protection agency, CDC saves lives and protects people from health threats. To accomplish our mission, CDC conducts critical science and provides health information that protects our nation against expensive and dangerous health threats, and responds when these arise.”

Firearms are NOT bacteria nor viral in nature and as such Do Not cause ANY biological disease process. Therefore, firearms are outside of the bailiwick of the CDC’s responsibility and mission.

Point 2. “Universal Background Checks.”

What does that even mean? You go to a gun shop to purchase a gun, you undergo a Federal background check. You purchase a gun online and the gun is shipped to a Federally LICENSED gun dealer where you are subject to a Federally Mandated criminal background check. You go to a gun show where there are Licensed gun dealers who perform a background check before you can purchase the gun. There is No Such Thing as a “gun show loophole.” What Hogg and all of his ilk demand, is the end of Private sales between adults. This will NEVER end as the end result is that people like me will still trade/sell/pass down Our legally purchased firearms as we see fit. Some people operate “off-grid” as much as possible and don’t think, and rightly so, any government has the right to interfere with private commerce. Again, We the People REFUSE to COMPLY. Criminals do not go to gun shops or gun shows to buy firearms. They buy them from other criminals who stole them from someone else.  -Hey, maybe we can demand “universal car sales” (all private car sales through licensed dealers) to help prevent DUI deaths?

Point 3. “Digitization of ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms) Records.”

So, now they demand that ATF create a National database of ALL firearms manufactured, imported, sold…etc. This is ALREADY being done. What the opposition demands are what is forbidden under Federal law. They want a central gun registration computerized database of ALL citizens gun purchases. They demand a system where YOU and I will be required by law to provide to the government a list of every firearm we possess and when, how and or we dispose of Our property. I’m all for the ATF having modern systems in order for them to do their jobs efficiently as possible since we the taxpayers are paying their salaries. That being said, I and MILLIONS of Americans WILL NEVER register any firearm with any government agency.

Point 4. “High-Capacity” magazine ban.

This is pointless. Exactly, what is the definition of “high capacity?” So-called “high capacity” magazines are referred to as “Standard capacity” in the industry. In fact, with regards to the AR-15, AK-47 or ANY other modern sporting rifle and, some pistols, magazines with lower capacity are more expensive than “standard capacity” magazines. Magazine capacity has absolutely NOTHING to do with crime frequency or lethality. One could make a law to restrict magazine capacity to 7 or 10 rounds (like in a few states like NY and CT). It’s like none of these idiots have never heard of “re-loading.”


As you can see, with just a little practice, one can reload and be back on target very quickly! Smaller capacity magazines make ZERO difference to a trained shooter.

And couple that with non-compliance, and you’re “pissing in the wind.” We the People will continue to REFUSE to COMPLY. As Proven in NJ this past month, after New Jersey implemented a new state law banning all “high-capacity” magazines requiring all citizens (of course, law enforcement IS Exempted), to turn in all now illegal magazines to local law enforcement. Out of the MILLIONS of magazines, ZERO was “turned in.” The law-abiding People have reached their limits and are engaging in their own civil disobedience by Refusing to Comply.

Point 5. “A Total Ban on “Assault Weapons.”

I’m not going to bemoan you with how absurd and uneducated it is to define a “modern sporting rifle” as an “assault rifle” as I have covered this in a previous essay. https://gunfighter32908.com/2018/02/24/please-just-shut-the-fuck-up-already/

Since 1986, it has been ILLEGAL under Federal law to manufacture or sell a firearm that is capable of Fully-Automatic fire for sale in the U.S. except for the military and law enforcement. It is legal for one to purchase ($20,000+) a “pre-ban” (1986) machinegun by a citizen only after a lengthy criminal background check and obtaining a “tax stamp” from the government.

Your average AR-15 style rifle is NOT an “assault rifle.” Semi-automatic guns have been around for over 100 years.

This whole argument is based on “feelings.” Feelings manipulated by the left and other anti-gun grabbers who have no problem using the dead bodies of children to push their political agenda. And, the children left behind are too inexperienced and stupid to be anything other than useful idiots, tools of the left.

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Gun control gets cut down by Occam’s Razor

Image result for occam's straight razor


In the current debate concerning guns in America, I am always astounded by the twisting of facts, logic, and reason that the gun control zealots put forth in order to defend their case.  In all sense and logic, gun control cannot be viewed as anything other than a means to oppress a free people and to disarm the law-abiding.

When looking at the pro-rights argument against the pro-control argument one needs to cut through the hyperbole and sensationalism with Occam’s razor.

Occam’s razor, for those of you who don’t know, is a term used in logic and problem-solving.  Plainly put, Occam’s razor is the process in which, when you have two competing theories, the one that makes the least amount of assumptions is most likely the correct one.  By using the “razor” to cut away the most assumptions you are left with the correct answer.

To apply this to the gun debate, I argue that gun control, when cut to ribbons by the razor cannot stand.

The argument for the 2nd Amendment.

  1. An armed people are a free people

That’s pretty much the only assumption that needs to be taken into consideration for the 2nd Amendment.  Freedom does not guarantee safety, nor does it ensure absolute happiness, it only assumes that if people are armed they will be free so long as they remain so.

The argument for gun control requires a lot more assumptions to be made.

  1. The 2nd Amendment is about hunting
  2. The founding fathers didn’t know what weapons would be available in the future and wouldn’t have written the 2nd Amendment if they had
  3. Gun control will stop criminals from getting guns
  4. The government will never turn on its people
  5. The police are enough to keep you safe
  6. Criminals will follow gun laws
  7. Shall not be infringed doesn’t mean that the 2nd Amendment can’t be infringed
  8. Gun control only fails because we don’t have enough of it
  9. Only the government needs guns, law-abiding people don’t
  10. Armed citizenry couldn’t stop tyranny

Those are just 10 assumptions that I have heard the gun control zealots use that come to mind.  I’m sure many of those reading this have heard even more.

The long and short of it is this, you have to make a LOT of assumptions in order to get on board with gun control while the 2nd Amendment only requires you to make 1 assumption.  And that assumption just seems so rational and has been proven in history that it boggles my mind that people still choose to deny it.

So the next time you find yourself in a war of words with some “enlightened” gun control advocate, don’t forget to bring your razor.

*Courtesy of the Gun Owners of America

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The Father of the Bill of Rights And the Meaning of the 2nd Amendment

The Supreme Court in the Heller decision explained that the second amendment guarantees an individual right of the people to keep and carry arms for their defense in the event of a confrontation.

The anti-gun crowd, however, refuses to accept this common sense reading of the amendment. The best way to interpret the Constitution begins with actually reading it.  The next best thing is to read what the Constitution’s chief drafter, James Madison, had to say about America’s founding document.  Madison was the chief author of the Federalist Papers, along with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton.  The Federalist Papers offer great insight into the political theories of the day that led to our system of government.

Students of the second amendment should be familiar with both Federalist 29 and 46, which discuss the role of an armed populace in protecting the precious freedom which had so recently been won.  It was that thinking that led to the adoption of the second amendment.

Madison was also the original drafter of the Bill of Rights, including what would become the second amendment. The anti-gun crowd regularly accuse second amendment supporters of only focusing on what Justice Scalia called the operative clause of the second amendment, the phrase “the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.”  They assert that we ignore the prefatory clause that reads, “A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state.”  To them, the prefatory clause confirms that the purpose of the amendment was to protect the right of the states to have militias or as they sometimes phrase it, the right to bear arms when in militia service.

However, beyond that, they never exactly explain what is meant by “the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.” The anti-gun crowd clings to the so-called collective rights view of the amendment that held sway with a number of federal circuit courts pre-Heller.  However, beyond denying an individual right to keep and bear arms, those courts said precious little on exactly what the amendment actually protected.

It was commonly stated outside the courtroom that the operative clause meant that the federal government could not disarm the state militias.  But that is not what the amendment says and no federal circuit court actually provided any reasoned discussion supporting such an interpretation.  In any event, if that were what the amendment was meant to accomplish, one would think the amendment would have been written in some way like “A well-regulated militia being necessary for a free state, Congress shall not infringe the right of the states to arm the militia.” However, this interpretation of the amendment would have worked a radical transformation of Congress’s power over the militia.  The Constitution addresses the militia in Article I, Section 8.  It states “The Congress shall have the power … To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.”

Thus, it was Congress’s responsibility, not the states, to organize and arm the militia, with the states having only the responsibility to appoint officers and train the militia as Congress mandates.   The militia is not treated by the Constitution as a creature of the several states, but of the nation as a whole to be organized, armed and disciplined by Congress, while being trained by the states as Congress directs.

Congress has in fact exercised this authority.

Title 10 of the United States Code, Section 311 defines the militia of the United States with certain exceptions as “all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and … under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and … female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard.”  The National Guard is the organized militia and the unorganized militia consists of those militia members, not in the Guard.  In the Second Militia Act, passed in 1792, Congress specified the arms militia members were to have.  It was incumbent on militia members to report for training and duty with their own arms. The second amendment did not change Congress’s authority over the militia, nor was that the intent of the amendment.  Most notably, the second amendment did not provide that the states would or could arm the militia.  If that were the meaning of the second amendment, then states could be free to arm the militia in any way they saw fit.  States could for instance under the collective rights view of the second amendment, authorize each member of the unorganized militia to own a fully automatic weapon such as the M-16.  That would raise issues with respect to the provisions of the National Firearms Act of 1934, which greatly restricts the ownership and transfer of automatic weapons.  States could also abrogate many other federal firearm restrictions. It is certainly the case that some founders, such as Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, feared that Congress would neglect its responsibility to arm the militia.  And so it is not an unreasonable view that a primary purpose of the second amendment was to ensure that the militia would not be disarmed by taking guns away from the people who constituted the militia.

However, that view is perfectly consistent with the wording of the operative clause, “the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.”  The amendment thus ensured that there could be a body of the people armed and available to serve in the militia.  It had nothing to do, however, with transferring to the states the right to arm, or specify the arming of the militia.  That remains the prerogative of Congress. Review of the legislative history of the second amendment confirms that it was designed to protect an individual right of the people generally to possess and carry arms.

When Madison initially introduced the various proposed amendments that would later become the Bill of Rights, he proposed to insert the bulk of them, including what would later become amendments one through five, part of the sixth amendment, and amendments eight and nine, into Article I, Section 9, between Clauses 3 and 4.

This is the portion of the Constitution which limits Congressional power over individuals.  Clause 3 is the prohibition on Bills of Attainder and ex-post facto laws.

Clause 4 is the limitation on the imposition of taxes directly on individuals as opposed to excise taxes on economic transactions.  This clause has been substantially abrogated by the sixteenth amendment, authorizing the federal government to tax incomes.  In other words, Madison proposed to put these amendments into that part of the Constitution that protected individual rights of the people from the federal government. The context of Madison’s original introduction to Congress of the Bill of Rights, including the second amendment, is powerful evidence supporting the conclusion that the right to keep and bear arms was intended to confirm an individual right of the people to arms.

Madison did not propose to place the second amendment in that part of the Constitution that governs Congress’s power over the militia.  The obvious reason is that Madison was seeking to protect an individual right to keep and bear arms, not some undefined right of the states to arm or control militia members within their borders.  Indeed, it was Madison himself who coined the phrase “Bill of Rights” to refer to the amendments he was proposing, including what would become the second amendment.  States do not have rights.  They have powers.  Individuals have rights.  In any event, the second amendment guarantees in its own words a right of the people, not a right of the states.

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